– George Dorros
Dr. George L. Dorros completed a long career with the World Health Organization. His work has focused on leadership, management development and realignment of system structures and processes, to improve the effectiveness and performance of programs, projects and services at different levels of national health systems in the Asia Pacific Region, the Middle East and Africa. He has adopted a people centered approach to health systems development. This has included: human resource development, systems for developing organizational management capacity to adapt to the changing health needs of populations. These developmental initiatives have all been undertaken in a national context of health sector reform; primary health care and health development policies. Dr. Dorros’ professional competence is in the field of change management and learning systems as part of health systems development including: planning, organizational development, quality management, organizational performance. His personal competences lie in building and leading effective multidisciplinary and multicultural teams with the capacity to adopt a systems approach to organizational change.
Organizational and Management Consultant Present
Health Systems and Change Management
Scientist June 1994 November 2003
Strategic Planning and Management
World Health Organization, Geneva
Team Coordinator December 1989 – June 1994
Health Policy and Planning
World Health Organization, Geneva
Chief of Unit July 1986 – November 1989
End-User Computer Services
World Health Organization, Geneva
Manager July 1977 – December 1985
Management Development Programme
World Health Organization, Manila
Health Systems Analyst January 1972 – June 1977
World Health Organization, Manila
Coordinated WHO support to a multi agency evaluation of Health Sector Reform Programme in Zambia.
Led multinational teams in establishing goals developing and implementing strategies for improving organizational performance of rural health systems in the Philippines; Heilongjian Province, People’s Republic of China, Zambia; and Zimbabwe.
Collaborated with leading health authorities of Laos and the Philippines in developing national health plans. This was the first plan for Laos and the second for the Philippines.
Leadership and Management
Led the development and implementation of a leadership, management and organizational development programme designed to provide national health authorities with an approach to improve the capacity of their health services to attain health objectives. The Programme was implemented in Syria, Egypt, Iran and Myanmar.
Co-ordinated the development of a district health response initiative on HIV/AIDS for countries in Africa.
Organized and managed the first end-user computer support service in WHO servicing up to 1500 microcomputer and mainframe clients in 36 divisions of headquarters.
Established management systems and processes for coordinating WHO support to least developed countries.
Initiated and operated the first management development programme in WHO to promote management education and research in public health in countries of the Western Pacific Region.
Human Resource Development
Led a multidisciplinary team in the planning of a WHO regional staff development and training programme to reorient and retrain 200 professional staff in 32 Member Countries to implement new health policies. The programme was the first of its kind and used as a model by other WHO regions and UN agencies.
Designed and planned a regional learning centre for senior government officials and WHO professional staff. The centre provides training in English language, health management, information and health technology and orientation to WHO operations.
Studies and Research
Designed and field tested experimental management systems for health care services with active involvement of the community linking health interventions with economic and social conditions. The system was introduced in a district of 180 000 people in rural Philippines and a county of 250 000 people in the People’s Republic of China.
Field tested and modified experimental management systems for implementing large health sector projects in Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Evaluated Health sector reform programme in Zambia.
Organized a WHO Study Group on Integrated Health Services
Designed and conducted a 5 year action research study on impact and implications for implementing Primary Health Care approach in developing country government health services.
Doctorate in Organization Development and Planning 1977 – 1983
PhD Dissertation: A framework for improving organizational
effectiveness and capacity to change in uncertain environments
South-East Asia Interdisciplinary Institute (SAIDI)
Corporate Strategic Planning June 1975
International Management Institute
Master of Business Administration 1970 –1971 – International Business
Washington, DC (USA)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration 1967 – 1969
Washington, DC (USA)
Selected recent papers and publications
Dorros G, (2005) Building Management Capacity to Rapidly Scale up Health Services and Health Outcomes EIP/SPO World Health Organization, Geneva www.who.int/entity/management/DorrosPaper020206.pdf
Maliqi B, Dorros G., Adams O. (2003) Management matters: Coping with the crises of management and managers in the health systems. A keynote presented to the 2003 annual meeting of European Health Management Association, in Caltanissetta, Sicily. EIP/HFS/SPM World Health Organization, Geneva.
Dorros, G. Maliqi.B (2003) A resource document for the Management Effectiveness Programme: Managing and assessing performing organizations. EIP/HFS/SPM/MEP World Health Organization, Geneva
Dorros G., Maliqi B, (2003) Discussion paper: Management capacity assessment: A framework for analysis. MEP/HFS WHO Geneva
Dorros G. Maliqi B., (2003) Management Effectiveness Programme: An overview. MEP/HFS WHO, Geneva
Dorros G. Maliqi B (2002) Assessing organization management: A tool for assessment of health organizations EIP/HFS/SPM WHO, Geneva
George L. Dorros Ph.D
Mobile No. (+41-(0) 79) 774-7859
– Larry Raymond
Larry Raymond has broad experience and proven capability as a manager, management consultant and educator. As a professional manager and executive at international companies for thirty years, he successfully delivered major projects, managed both small groups and global activities with over 700 staff members and budgets over $100M/year. He also led a small international consulting firm, taught management on the graduate level for ten years and performed research into how to overcome obstacles to planning, leading, organizing and controlling.
In addition to his extensive global business experience, Larry also supported U.N. agencies and South Asian and African governments through consulting in health care management systems and economic development. He has provided pro-bono service to the World Health Organization and other agencies for a variety of projects.
A co-founder and Director of Development for River Leadership Resources, Larry is also Director of the Metaphor Language Research Center LLC which provides tools for leadership development, systems thinking, problem solving, creativity and innovation.
Larry holds dual USA and Irish citizenship, lived in Switzerland for 10 years and in Denmark for 2, worked in more than 50 countries and published a book on building effective teams in cross cultural environments. He has long-held passions for achieving sustainable economic growth and improving the lives of people in underdeveloped countries.
Lawrence F. Raymond
Telephone: +1 720 233 8946
Director or VP at four corporations
Management consultant to international agencies and governments
Work at business executive or government minister level as well as operations level
Experience in over 50 countries
French language workshops in Morocco, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Switzerland
Developer of group creativity and alignment tools and management training programs
Past adjunct professor/department head for Information Systems management
Following a business career that included consulting activity, I am now fully focused on consulting in developing countries. This resume provides information about the purpose, activities and results of consulting assignments. It provides only a brief summary of my business experience and skills that inform my consulting.
Consulting Approach and Assignments
Most assignments I’ve been given involve the need for a group to develop a strategy or solve a problem. The sponsor typically has an underlying concern that the group won’t truly commit to a solution design and will later find reasons to not make the changes necessary to implement it. I meet in advance with project sponsors to understand their goals and views of group member perceptions of the issue. A key element of this interview is to know if any special skill or experience is missing and may prevent the group from meeting the goal. If not, I assume the group has the capacity to accomplish the task and view my role as one of helping them communicate clearly, generate fresh approaches, evaluate objectively and come to agreement on how to proceed. I outline options or recommendation for an approach and timetable for the assignment and develop or review the list of stakeholders in the issue, aiming to have all present and actively engaged. Early meetings with sponsors are also the time to establish an informal contract regarding their leadership role going forward and the degree to which they want me to adopt a directive as well as a facilitative style. My personal style is always respectful.
I design projects to avoid the facilitator being the center of attention and avoid any circumstance where participants might be able to lay back and rely on the facilitator to generate ideas or give direction. With concurrence of the sponsor, I set ground rules that require full participation. I take the role of questioning or challenging solution designs to avoid omissions or vagueness.
I find having the sponsor in the room is manageable and often very valuable. If that is not practical or desirable, I find it useful to have the sponsor introduce the session and return for presentation of results. This has proven workable in all cultures. In some, such as Japan, the solution cannot be confirmed by a single sponsor and requires at least one discussion with an extended leadership team that may or may not have been in the room.
The above characterizes the process I’ve followed in most assignments with businesses in developed economies, such as DuPont, HP, insurance companies, etc. I have occasionally taken assignments that draw on specific skills developed in managing I.T. and supply chain organizations but, prefer the role of managing the group thinking and commitment-building process to that of the technical expert.
Project team alignment
(an example of many business consulting assignments that include process engineering, strategy setting, quality improvement, team building for companies including Du Pont, Hewlett-Packard, Union Carbide, Lotus Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Novartis, Neste, Unisys, NASDAQ, Boehringer Mannheim, Northwestern Mutual Life, Business Man’s Assurance)
– Client: Aftra Insurance (New York, NY, USA)
– Purpose, activities, results: Client is an insurance company with a history of I.T. projects that did not meet business objectives but did far exceed costs. Task was to reduce risk or recurrence by bringing together the sponsor, user leaders and I.T. team in a way that ensured clear, detailed understanding of the new system’s objectives and how it would impact the operations of the overall company and the jobs of individuals. A series of pre-meetings were employed to clarify the past conflicts, assess personnel issues, define stakeholders and plan a course of action. A Metaphor Mapping workshop succeeded in completely aligning the groups, surfacing the need for new organization structures, behavior changes and actions to control vendors. Six months of coaching to leaders followed. Result was both a successful project and an enduring change to a more collaborative culture.
CBRN Centres of Excellence Programme
– Sponsor: European Commission
– Executing Agency: UNICRI, U.N. Inter-regional Crime and Justice Research Institute
– Purpose, activities, results: Clients sought a method to build effective national CBRN teams to mitigate risks of incidents and respond effectively in case of incident caused by natural disaster, accident or intentional act. National team membership was to be from multiple government and non-government sectors, including Foreign Affairs, Civil Defense, Police, Intelligence, Military, Health, Finance, Border security/Customs, Academia, Business and relevant NGOs. Activities included development and deployment of: Team building training and coaching; National Team Governance methodology; Assessment of CBRN Risks and Support needs.
Regional planning workshops were conducted in Montenegro, Croatia, Morocco and Kenya. Workshops on team formation, governance and need assessment were delivered in Serbia, Moldova, Albania, Lebanon, Jordan, Morocco, Senegal, Kenya and Uganda. Coaching and training provided to UNICRI regional coordinators around the world. Six national teams have demonstrated on-going effectiveness, two continue in development and one is preparing to start operations. UNICRI is very satisfied with progress and continuing to use the methods with additional countries.
Zambian Public Sector Management Reform Programme
– Sponsors: Government of Zambia, World Bank
– Purpose, activities, results: Clients sought a plan to reduce the government’s role in the economy from 60% to 35% of GNP that could be implemented with full support of all sectors and without causing economic or social upheaval. A series of pre-meetings with permanent secretaries and their staffs led to definition of 80 stakeholder attendees for a three day Metaphor Mapping workshop. Attendees were invited from all sectors of the government and economy, including State, Military, Treasury, private sector, provincial administration, tribal chiefs, NGOs, AID groups, IMF and World Bank. Mixed sub-groups mapped the current structure of the national economy on first day and gained agreement on weaknesses and opportunities. On the second day, a similar exercise resulted in an agreed vision for how the economy would operate at 35% government participation. Thought leadership surprisingly came from the military and tribal chiefs. The President privately reviewed the findings at end of day two. Day three resulted in the development of agreed actions and timetable for the transition. It included:
How the government would decentralize authority and sell businesses
How planning, budgeting, and financial control would be improved
How to improve personnel performance and redesign the reward system
A layoff policy
Within a month of completion, the World Bank released $160M in funds to support the transition.
Sri Lanka Service Export Development
– WTO/International Trade Centre (ITC) sponsor
– Purpose, activities, results: ITC wanted to help Sri Lanka gain hard currency and build its economy by developing a services export sector, starting with I.T. services. Activities included building a task force of representatives of Sri Lanka’s small data entry, programing and telecommunications industries along with representatives of academia and the government to devise a strategy for building exports. It was critical to identify where Sri Lanka might have a strong competitive position, what target applications had the best prospects and where export clients might be found. Promotional materials were then developed, marketed in person to target geographies and meetings established between supply-capable companies and prospective clients. Initial findings were reviewed with the task force, strategy changes made, skills improved and marketing efforts renewed.
Success of the effort was only moderate. Developed economies found that Sri Lankan skills were marginal and the country didn’t have the communications infrastructure to give confidence of un-interrupted service. Successful matches were found in the Middle East. Disruptions from the on-going civil war diminished the modest success but some companies were able to establish subsidiaries in the Middle East.
Service Export Opportunity Evaluation: Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Tanzania
– WTO/International Trade Centre, ILO sponsors
– Purpose, activities, result: Sponsor’s aim was similar to the Sri Lanka assignment, but without the focus on I.T. related services. In each case, national capacity to provide services was inadequate for export. No justification was found for the extensive training and infrastructure that would have been needed to support service exports.
Strategic Plan for National Health in Guinea Bissau
– WHO sponsor
– Purpose, activities, results: WHO was concerned that Guinea-Bissau lacked a plan to guide its poorly resourced and funded health sector. Health indicators compared unfavorably with other countries in the region, infrastructure and skills were at a low level and prospects for improvement were low due to lack of agreed priorities. I led a consulting assignment, in conjunction with WHO with a Metaphor Mapping session at its core. In a two day workshop, the full Ministry of Health management team came together to assess the health system’s weaknesses and define an ideal state that met WHO’s guidelines, as modified for local conditions. Their transition strategy was practical and included specific responsibilities as well as documented proposals for NGO and Agency support. WHO held up the plan as a model for the region and Guinea-Bissau featured it in a national television special report.
Health System Management Effectiveness Programme (MEP)
– WHO sponsor
– Purpose, activities, results: WHO initiated this program because health indicators continued to decline in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in spite of ongoing efforts. I was engaged to work with a WHO specialist to assess conditions in the region, develop a plan, develop a training program, assess the readiness of countries to implement it and participate in deployment to those that were ready. WHO led the assessment of national conditions. I collaborated with WHO and regional management specialists in defining an overall management training program and developed the materials on process design, quality management and team formation. On-the-ground observations showed the need to deal with issues related to the role of women, compensation for medical professionals, understanding of the importance of listening to patients, changing the paradigm from remediation of illness to one of promotion of health, initiating parallel efforts to improve drinking water and sanitation and many others.
Training programs were highly participative with rotational periods between training and practice. Local leaders were trained to carry on efforts after departure of consultants.. My personal work on implementation was heaviest in Syria with two multi-week assignments and shorter efforts focused on Egypt, Kuwait and Iran.
The MEP was strongly supported by regional WHO but had weaker support at HQ. It did not meet its overall goals but periodically surfaces as an ongoing need. Myanmar requested a program to re-vitalize its health system in 2012 but was not funded.
Local / Regional Management System for HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe
– WHO Sponsor
– Purpose, activities, results: The rate of HIV/AIDS contraction in Zimbabwe was long a grave concern but WHO became particularly worried by an absence of coordination between the Health Ministry at central and regional levels and the communities most affected. The goal of my consulting assignment was to review conditions in one region, assess weaknesses and recommend improvements in processes and facilities. Activities included interviews with three levels of government health officials, observation visits to health centers, hospitals, towns and meetings with local leaders.
The social/cultural and economic drivers of the local epidemic were perfectly clear, the needs for improved facilities and skills were perfectly clear, local officials had perfectly clear ideas on how to mitigate the intensity of the epidemic, but communication up the chain to central government was absent. My recommendations regarding changes needed by the Health Ministry were reported to WHO and the Minister. There was no indication of any impact.
Laboratory Management Assessment – Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute
– Government of Iran, WHO
– Purpose, activities, results: The government of Iran had aspirations of developing the Razi Institute as provider of animal vaccines to the entire Islamic world. They had moderate success in some areas but were facing an expensive dilemma. Nearly all of the 70 test animals at the Razi Institute had died within two months. The cost per animal was over $40,000. It would be difficult to fund replacing them and imprudent to even start without understanding why the animals had died. There were no theories of a root cause. The government assembled a multi-function team to analyze the problem and, because of its satisfaction with the MEP described above, asked WHO to provide a specialist in laboratory process management. My activities involved assessment of lab processes, peer-reviewing the technical and equipment assessments of colleagues and bringing together the lab leaders in a Metaphor Mapping workshop to define operational processes that would ensure the controls needed to validate experiments and avoid poisoning animals. Practical work of documentation and training followed, including setting responsibilities up the management chain. The lab director and Agriculture Minister were delighted with results but I have no information on the enduring results of the intervention.
Workshop materials and training
– U.S. Treasury Department, U.S. Department of Transportation, Canada Department of Defense, and 40+ companies
Metaphor Language Research Center LLC (2010-present: Boulder, CO, USA)
Director and Managing Consultant
IBM (1999 – 2010: Boulder, CO, USA; Copenhagen, Denmark; Raleigh, NC, USA)
Director, Integrated Supply Chain for Sustainability and Strategic Initiatives
Global Supply Chain Process Optimization Director
Business Operations and Innovation Director- Printing Systems, Retail Stores, Software
Global Software Manufacturing & Delivery Director
Lotus Development (1995-1999: Cambridge, MA, USA; Dublin, IRE)
Vice President, Process Engineering
Project Director, SAP Deployment
Newbase International Consulting (1988-1995: Geneva, Switzerland, Andover, MA USA)
Digital Equipment (1984-1988: Geneva, Switzerland)
Executive Consultant; Channels Marketing Manager; Sales Manager (French)
Union Carbide (1968-1984: New York, West Virginia, Connecticut, Geneva Switzerland)
Global I.T. Director, EMEA Strategic Planning, Economic Analysis
BA, University of Massachusetts – Amherst, Massachusetts, USA
MBA, Pace University – Pleasantville, New York, USA
Adjunct Professor and Geneva department chair, Information Systems Management,
Webster University Graduate Program- Geneva, Switzerland (1982-1991)
USA English mother tongue, Working capacity in French
Book: Reinventing Communication: A Guide to Using Visual Language for Planning, Problem-Solving and Reengineering (ASQC Quality Press, 1994)
Contributor to articles on organization capacity building in developing countries
Belief in inclusive, participative training, local ownership and responsibility for results
Developer of Metaphor Mapping, a suite of workshop tools for cross-culture communication, creativity and alignment. Includes present state analysis, visioning, planning, organization culture, roles and responsibilities. Applied in 20+ countries
Home: Boulder, Colorado, USA
Citizen of USA, Ireland
Lived in Switzerland for 10 years, Denmark for 2, worked in or visited over 90 countries